Regulatory Aspects of Omega Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Dietary Supplements
Background: Food additives are subject to certain regulatory requirements, as in some countries, the control is very strict, while in others there is almost no control. Some food supplements can affect existing diseases or interact with some medications, food and beverage, a fact that is not mentioned on the packaging or in product instructions.
Methods: The aim of the study is to analyze the legislative framework for authorization and use of omega polyunsaturated fatty acids in the US and the European Union. The documents of 10 pieces of legislation were analyzed.
Results: Since 1994 the dietary supplements in the United States has been governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). The European Union (EU) directive on food additives 2002/46/EC specifies harmonized rules for labeling of supplements and introduces specific rules on vitamins and minerals used in food supplements. The aim is to harmonize legislation and ensure that these products are safe and appropriately labeled so that consumers can make informed choices.
Conclusions: Due to heightened expectations and requirements for food additives worldwide regulation and legislation will continue to increase and ensure their quality, as well as their effects and safe use in all possible mechanisms.
Lead-induced Oxidative Stress and Chemoprotective Role of Dietary Supplements on Wistar Albino Rats
The heavy metal lead (Pb) is a common environmental pollutant with widespread distribution, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of its toxicity. The ameliorative effect of nutritional contents of palm oil and cod liver oil (dietary supplements) following exposure to sublethal concentration of Pb on adult Wistar albino rats was studied. Toxicity was induced by administering intraperitoneally, 30 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate at alternate days for 21 days. Groups treated with supplements received daily oral dose of 2.5 ml palm oil or cod liver oil or 1.25 ml palm oil and 1.25 ml cod liver oil (synergy). Increased activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and increased concentrations of total bilirubin and lipid peroxidation product were observed in Pb exposed rats without nutritional supplement treatment. However, these negative oxidative states were ameliorated in rats by the concomitant administration of nutritional supplements, singly and in combination. Furthermore, non-significant changes were observed in the haematological parameters determined. These observations indicate potential therapeutic benefits in the use of palm oil and cod liver oil in the management of lead-induced toxicity.
Impact of a Multi-Component Dietary Supplement on Blood Testosterone, Nitrate/Nitrite and Physical Performance in Resistance-Trained Men
Both D-aspartic acid (DAA) and nitrate have received considerable attention in recent years. Vitamin D3 is also considered important for overall physical health and has been associated with elevated blood testosterone. The present study evaluated the impact of a DAA-nitrate-vitamin D3 containing dietary supplement on anaerobic exercise performance, blood testosterone and nitrate/nitrite in men.
Methods: 24 resistance-trained men (mean age: 23 years) were assigned to ingest a DAA-nitrate-vitamin D3 supplement or a placebo for 28 days. Exercise performance (upper body muscle power, force, and endurance; Wingate cycle sprints), in addition to blood total and free testosterone and nitrate/nitrite was measured before and after 14 and 28 days of supplementation.
Results: No increase in total or free testosterone was noted at either measurement time (p>0.05), with values remaining stable or decreasing slightly following intake of the supplement. Nitrate/nitrite was increased significantly following intake of the supplement (p<0.05), from 19.1±2.1 µmol∙L-1 (pre) to 70.0±12.4 µmol∙L-1 at 14 days and 68.6±7.7 µmol∙L-1 at 28 days. Despite this increase in nitrate/nitrite, no performance variable was impacted in a statistically significant manner by supplementation (p>0.05). However, the cumulative number of repetitions performed during a five-set bench press challenge was 11.3% higher after 28 days of supplementation, as compared to 3.6% higher for placebo.
Conclusion: Twenty-eight days of treatment with a DAA-nitrate-vitamin D3 supplement increases blood nitrate/nitrite and can moderately improve repetitive bench press performance. However, this supplement does not result in an increase in total or free testosterone or any other performance measure.
STUDIES ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF KOI CARP FINGERLINGS (Cyprinus carpio KOI) FED WITH AZOMITE SUPPLEMENTED DIET
Effects of dietary azomite, a natural mineral of volcanic ash, on the growth performance and immune response of koi carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio koi) were investigated. Koi carp fingerlings were divided into four groups and each group was fed with azomite supplemented diet with three graded levels (2.0 g kg-1, 4.0 g kg-1 and 6.0 g kg-1) along with control group. After 8 weeks of feeding trial, the results indicate that the koi fed with diets supplemented with 4.0 g kg-1azomite had the highest final weight, specific growth rate, total phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, NBT assay, lysozyme assay, total protein and immunoglobulin levels of koi carp fingerlings were significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared with control group. The results showed that the dietary level of 4.0 g kg-1 azomite can improve the growth performance and immune response of koi carp fingerlings.