Binary alloy surface compositions from bulk alloy thermodynamic data
The surface composition of binary alloys is determined by minimizing alloy surface free energy with respect to atom exchange between the surface and the bulk. The theory is developed using a pairwise bound model of the solid with a broken bond surface. Parametric predictions for the atom fraction in the first four atomic layers for ideal and regular alloy solutions are presented. 
Prediction of dendritic growth and microsegregation patterns in a binary alloy using the phase-field method
A comprehensive model is developed for solving the heat and solute diffusion equations during solidification that avoids tracking the liquid—solid interface. The bulk liquid and solid phases are treated as regular solutions and an order parameter (the phase field) is introduced to describe the interfacial region between them. 
Review of binary alloy formation by thin film interactions
Formation and properties of binary compounds made by thin film interactions at temperatures well below the melting point of the various components were recently studied. Several aspects concerning such compounds are still, however, unclear; among which are (a) the mechanism responsible for the growth, (b) which phase is formed first, and (c) why not all the compounds predicted by the phase diagram were observed. 
Free Energy Determination of a Binary Alloy Around the Equilibrium Based on the Order Parameter
In this paper, we have determined the free energy of a binary alloy for any order and it is showed that the number of equilibrium states of the system is obtained by the Taylor expansion to the 4-th order choice. We explicitly determine the stable states of alloy which are characterized by the free energy. 
An Investigation of Atomic Short Range Order (SRO) in Binary Ni20Pd80 and Au25Pd75 Alloy
The atomic short range order (SRO) parameters (αi) have been investigated in polycrystalline alloys i.e., Ni20Pd80 and Au25Pd75. The Ni20Pd80 alloy was annealed at different temperatures (100 to 600°C) then studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD). 
 Williams, F.L. and Nason, D., 1974. Binary alloy surface compositions from bulk alloy thermodynamic data. Surface Science, 45(2), pp.377-408.
 Warren, J.A. and Boettinger, W.J., 1995. Prediction of dendritic growth and microsegregation patterns in a binary alloy using the phase-field method. Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, 43(2), pp.689-703.
 Ottaviani, G., 1979. Review of binary alloy formation by thin film interactions. Journal of vacuum science and technology, 16(5), pp.1112-1119.
 Azzouzi Fatima, E. and Khomssi Mohammed, E. (2016) “Free Energy Determination of a Binary Alloy Around the Equilibrium Based on the Order Parameter”, Physical Science International Journal, 12(3), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.9734/PSIJ/2016/29954.
 Ajmal, S.K., Ziya, A.B., Syed, N., Akhter, S. and Bashir, T., 2016. An Investigation of Atomic Short Range Order (SRO) in Binary Ni20Pd80 and Au25Pd75 Alloy. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, pp.1-9.