From experiences all over the world we know that formulae and chemical equations are memorized very often or are equalized by counting the number of „atoms on the left and right side of the equation“. Looking to our Chemical triangle (Fig. 1) lecturers and students are jumping from the Macro level just to the Symbolic level. If we would go first from Macro level to Submicro level and explain chemical reactions with involved atoms, ions and molecules, learners would understand chemistry more successfully. With a special questionnaire we are investigating the ability of university students and chemistry teachers in Indonesia, Tanzania and Germany to interpret given chemical equations with involved particles. We found a lot of misconceptions and proposed how to challenge them.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Barke
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry Education, University of Münster, Germany.

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