RNA polymerases belong to a selected group of evolutionarily conserved proteins. Their role emerged with the coming of DNA molecules having more stability than the RNA molecules, which formed the RNA world before it. The chapter makes a detour through RNA polymerases working in a eukaryotic system and their prokaryotic counterpart—a special emphasis on their structural aspect and functional variation arising due to variation in structure. Further, the importance of various known transcription factors has been explained along with accessory transcription factors that serve as an essential regulator of RNAP activity. A mutation occurring in these proteins results in the aberration of polymerase activity that results in a plethora of diseases ranging from the developmental disorder, autoimmune diseases to cancers.

Author(s) Details

Vivek Pandey
South Asian University, New Delhi 110021, India.

Dr. Yuba Raj Pokharel
South Asian University, New Delhi 110021, India.

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