Climate articles and publications continue to erroneously suggest a one and a half (1.5°C) to two
degrees (2°C) Celsius as an achievable global limit to climate change . A comprehensive review
has found that observationally informed projections of climate science underlying climate change offer
a different outlook of five to six-degree (5-6°C) increase as “most accurate” with regard to present
trends, climate history and models, yielding the most likely outcome for 2100 . A significant
causative triad from 1950 to the present has been identified: The tripling (3x) of world population; the
quadrupling (4x) of carbon emissions; and the quintupling (5x) of energy consumption. This paper
presents a quantitative, linear global temperature link to carbon dioxide levels, which has a short
temporal feedback loop. The Vostok ice core temperature and CO2 values for the past 420,000 years,
with sea level estimates have produced “Hansen’s Graph” . Analysis results in an equation for
global average temperature change and an indebted sea level rise, from any CO2 change. The bestperforming climate change models and observational analysis project more warming than the averagemodel often relied upon . World atmosphere, temperature, and sea level trends for 2100 andbeyond are examined. A CO2 experimental analysis proves its dramatic heat-entrapment versus air which relates to the global atmospheric system. Policy-relevant climate adaptation, including carbon capture, positive individual action, zero and negative emissions are reviewed, including Hansen (1988) projections.
Thomas F. Valone,
Integrity Research Institute, Beltsville Maryland, USA.
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