Matching demand and supply in the agricultural knowledge infrastructure: Experiences with innovation intermediaries
The privatization of agricultural research and extension establishments worldwide has led to the development of a market for services designed to support agricultural innovation. However, due to market and systemic failures, both supply side and demand side parties in this market have experienced constraints in effecting transactions and establishing the necessary relationships to engage in demand-driven innovation processes. To mitigate these constraints, a field of intermediary organizations has emerged to assist agricultural entrepreneurs to articulate demand, forge linkages with those that can provide innovation support services, and manage innovation processes. This article aims to give an overview of the different kinds of the so-called innovation intermediaries that have emerged in The Netherlands and to report on their contributions and the tensions that are being experienced with regard to their functioning. The article concludes with a discussion in which it is argued that the state should play a role as a ‘market facilitator’, by funding such innovation intermediaries.
 Extension 3.0: Managing Agricultural Knowledge Systems in the Network Age
This article develops the idea of “Extension 3.0” as an approach to agricultural extension that capitalizes on the network structure of local agricultural knowledge systems. Over the last century, agricultural knowledge systems have evolved into networks of widely distributed actors with a diversity of specializations and expertise. Agricultural extension programs need to manage these networks in ways that maximize the synergy between experiential, technical, and social learning. Using empirical research from California farmers, we highlight the structure of these networks within and across contexts, and the importance of boundary-spanning relationships. We provide some initial recommendations about actions needed to realize the goal of Extension 3.0, which is to deliver relevant agricultural knowledge to the right people, at the right time and place.
 Resilience of traditional knowledge systems: The case of agricultural knowledge in home gardens of the Iberian Peninsula
The resilience of a social–ecological system largely depends on its capacity to learn by absorbing new information to cope with change. But, how resilient are traditional knowledge systems? We explore the resilience of the traditional agricultural knowledge system of home gardeners in the Iberian Peninsula (n = 383). We use multivariate analysis to explore the co-existence of agricultural information derived from two different knowledge systems: (i) knowledge and use of landraces (representative of traditional agricultural knowledge) and (ii) knowledge and use of commercial crop varieties (representative of modern agricultural knowledge). Our analyses show a positive association between both types of knowledge: overall gardeners who are more knowledgeable about commercial crop varieties are also more knowledgeable about landraces. Despite this overall tendency, results from hierarchical cluster analysis showed different groups of traditional and modern knowledge holders. Our results suggest that (a) traditional knowledge is not a frozen and static corpus of knowledge and (b) modern and traditional agricultural knowledge are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Both maintenance of some aspects of the traditional knowledge and incorporation of some aspect of the modern knowledge seem to be core elements of home gardeners’ body of agricultural knowledge which is constantly evolving in response to changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions.
 Effectiveness of Different Agricultural Extension Methods in Providing Knowledge and Skills in Disease Prevention: A Case of Smallholder Poultry Production Systems in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt
The study identified the effectiveness of the Demonstration alone, the Meeting alone and the Pamphlet alone and All methods together on the poultry farmers’ knowledge and skills levels. The Experimental research design was used in the current study. The study was carried out in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt during the period from November 2012 to April 2013. One hundred and twenty poultry farmers were selected randomly in 10 districts of the governorate. The sample was categorized into (4) equal groups for providing extension recommendations by different extension methods in cooperation with extension poultry specialists in the districts studied. The first group was exposed to a Demonstration, the second group was exposed to a Meeting, the third group was exposed to a Pamphlet and finally last group was exposed to All methods together. The main findings of the study indicate that: the total average of poultry farmers’ exposure level to information sources studied was moderate at 59.8%.In addition, The All Methods group had acquired the maximum knowledge and skills with the percentages of 55.8%, 48.3% respectively followed by the Demonstration method, the Meeting method and the Pamphlet method. It can be concluded that Demonstration, Meeting and Pamphlet could be rich communication tools on their own, but when combined with others, can create a more effective training/learning experience.
 Farmers’ Knowledge towards the Role of Extension Services in Agricultural Development in Opolski County, Lubelskie Province of Poland
This research aimed at identifying and evaluating farmers’ knowledge in Opolski County towards the role of extension services in the agriculture development, identifying the farmers’ knowledge in Opolski County in each item/statement of research (in scheduled questionnaire) and identifying correlation between the farmers’ knowledge and independent variables in the research. For data collection, a questionnaire was designed and tested, in accordance with said objectives. It was consisted of two parts, first part including the personal variables that were related to farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics (age, education level, farm size, contact degree with information sources and methods of agricultural production). The second part included the scale for farmers’ knowledge towards the role of extension services in the agricultural development, this scale was consisted of 20 statements (items). The results showed that the farmers’ knowledge in Opolski County towards the role of extension services in the agriculture development was medium tending to high degree. The results also showed that farmers’ knowledge was high in the statement, ‘Agricultural extension methods help in transferring agricultural information and new knowledge to farmers’. The results also showed there was significant correlation between farmers’ knowledge and variables (age, contact degree with sources information and methods of agricultural production). There was no significant correlation found between knowledge level and independent variables (education level, size of farm).
 Klerkx, L. and Leeuwis, C., 2008. Matching demand and supply in the agricultural knowledge infrastructure: Experiences with innovation intermediaries. Food policy, 33(3), pp.260-276.
 Lubell, M., Niles, M. and Hoffman, M., 2014. Extension 3.0: managing agricultural knowledge systems in the network age. Society & Natural Resources, 27(10), pp.1089-1103.
 Reyes-García, V., Aceituno-Mata, L., Calvet-Mir, L., Garnatje, T., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Lastra, J.J., Ontillera, R., Parada, M., Rigat, M., Vallès, J. and Vila, S., 2014. Resilience of traditional knowledge systems: The case of agricultural knowledge in home gardens of the Iberian Peninsula. Global Environmental Change, 24, pp.223-231.
 Kassem, H.S., 2014. Effectiveness of different agricultural extension methods in providing knowledge and skills in disease prevention: A case of Smallholder Poultry Production Systems in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.91-107.
 Ango, A.K., Illo, A.I., Abdullahi, A.N., Maikasuwa, M.A. and Amina, A., 2013. Role of farm-radio agricultural programmes in disseminating agricultural technology to rural famers for agricultural development in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.54-68.