Educational and Vocational Aspirations of Minority and Female Students: A Longitudinal Study
This study examined the relative importance of school, family, personal/psychological, race, and sex variables in predicting educational and vocational aspirations. A nationally representative sample of 10th‐grade students was followed through 2 years beyond their high school. Results suggested that sex and race significantly predicted educational and vocational aspirations of students. The educational aspiration model was shown to be more robust than the occupational aspiration model. Overall, students showed increases in educational and occupational aspirations, regardless of sex and race. Compared with other groups, Asian Americans had the greatest increase in educational aspirations. Female students, on the average, had higher educational and vocational aspirations.
 Support Systems, Psychological Functioning, and Academic Performance of Nontraditional Female Students
Traditional (18-22 years of age) and nontraditional (35-44 years of age)female students were compared on various aspects of their social support systems, child care, psychological functioning (depression and anxiety), and academic performance. Traditional students exhibited poorer psychological functioning when they were less satisfied with their emotional support network. In contrast, psychological functioning within the nontraditional students was independent of the amount and satisfaction with their emotional and instrumental social support resources. Despite having fewer sources of support, nontraditional students reported better academic performance than did the traditional students.
 Criticizing and reassuring oneself: An exploration of forms, styles and reasons in female students
Objectives: Self‐critical people, compared with those who self‐reassure, are at increased risk of psychopathology. However, there has been little work on the different forms and functions of these self‐experiences. This study developed two self‐report scales to measure forms and functions of self‐criticism and self‐reassurance and explore their relationship to depression.
Methods: A self‐report scale measuring forms of self‐criticism and self‐reassuring, and a scale measuring possible functions of self‐criticism, together with a measure of depression and another self‐criticism scale (LOSC), were given to 246 female students.
Results: Self‐criticizing vs. self‐reassuring separated into two components. Forms of self‐criticizing separated into two components related to: being self‐critical, dwelling on mistakes and sense of inadequacy; and a second component of wanting to hurt the self and feeling self‐disgust/hate. The reasons/functions for self‐criticism separated into two components. One was related to desires to try to self‐improve (called self‐improving/correction), and the other to take revenge on, harm or hurt the self for failures (called self‐harming/persecuting). Mediation analysis suggested that wanting to harm the self may be particularly pathogenic and is positively mediated by the effects of hating the self and negatively mediated by being able to self‐reassure and focus on one’s positives.
Conclusions: Self‐criticism is not a single process but has different forms, functions, and underpinning emotions. This indicates a need for more detailed research into the variations of self‐criticism and the mechanisms for developing self‐reassurance.
 Menstrual Pattern among Female Medical Students in University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Aims: To determine menstrual pattern and disorder associated with it among female medical students.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria between February – September 2010.
Methodology: Self descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 169 Medical students (MBBS II-V) between the ages 19-46 years. Respondents were selected from each class using stratified random sampling method. Stratification was done according to their class. Questionnaires were designed and administered to the respondents to complete. Three researchers and two research assistances were on site to assist. Students were briefed on the objective of the study and duly completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Subjects who had primary amenorrhea and/or history of abdominal or pelvic surgery were not eligible for the study. The questionnaire included data such as; age of menarche, menstrual pattern, severity of pain (dysmenorrheal), marital status, effects of exercise, socioeconomic status, Body mass Index (BMI) and Diet. The method of observation involved personal interaction and questioning of respondent to find out if they had anything peculiar about their cycle. The number of days of menstrual flow on menarche and number of pads use per day were in the questionnaire.
Results: It was observed that 148(87.6%) respondents had regular length of menstrual cycle, particularly in the age groups 20-22 and 23-26 years which recorded 39 and 43 respondents respectively. Irregular menstrual cycle was found in 21(12.4%) respondents, which showed its peak at the age group of 17-19(33.3%) years, between age groups. It was also observed that 118(69.8%) respondents had painful menstrual flow, out of which 71(60.2%) had mild pain, 30(29.7%) had moderate pain while 17(14.4%) had severe pain. Result of length of menstrual cycle between single and married respondents showed that, 20(71.4%) of single respondents had short menstrual length compared to 8(28.6%) married respondents of corresponding short menstrual length. It was revealed that in 148(87.6) respondents that had regular menstrual cycle type, 106(71.6%) menstrual flow was average, while in 31(21.0%), it was scanty and heavy in 11(7.4%) respondents. 10(47.6%) respondent had average irregular menstrual cycle, while 9(42.9%) and 2(9.5%) respondents had scanty and heavy irregular menstrual cycles The result showed no significant variation in frequency of menstrual cycle (p=0.5). 99(58.6%) of respondents did no physical exercise; while 70(41.4%) did at least 30 minutes exercise (p=0.38). 101(59.8%) respondents belong to high upper, 51(30.2%) in upper-middle and 17(10.0%) belonged to lower socioeconomic status (p=0.14). 135(80.0%) respondents had daily fast food habits, out of which 95(80.5%) had positive history of pain and 34(20.0%) had no daily fast food (P=0.80). 30(17.8) respondents were underweight, 120(71.0%) had average weight and 19(11.2%) respondents were overweight (p=0.20).
Conclusion: Study has established mean age at menarche, menstrual pattern and menstrual disorder (pain) in relation to BMI, exercise and socioeconomic factor among female Medical Students of University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was very high among the female medical students. Although further research is needed, as relationship between Menstrual cycle, obesity, diet and exercise are conflicting with other studies.
 The Effectiveness of the Mawhiba Program for the Development of Critical Thinking Skills among Gifted Female Students at the Secondary Levels
This study explores the effectiveness of the Mawhiba (Giftedness) program in developing critical-thinking skills in students in Saudi Arabia. This quantitative study involved the assessment of 30 gifted female secondary-school students in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia who participated in the Mawhiba program. The Critical Thinking test used in this study, prepared by Jabir Abdulhameed Jabir and Ahlam Al-Baz , is designed to measure critical-thinking skills. The results indicate that these students began to ability to enhance their ability to think critically after attending the five-week intensive training course. Furthermore, this study illustrates how critical thinking could be developed to supplement academic programs with reasonable levels of success. Saudi policymakers, teachers and faculty members should consider finding and refining ways to improve critical-thinking skills in female students as part of the university environment and in order to support and capitalise upon the learning that happens beyond the conventional classroom. In addition, this study illustrates how critical thinking could be developed to supplement academic programs.
 Mau, W.C. and Bikos, L.H., 2000. Educational and vocational aspirations of minority and female students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), pp.186-194.
 Carney-Crompton, S. and Tan, J., 2002. Support systems, psychological functioning, and academic performance of nontraditional female students. Adult education quarterly, 52(2), pp.140-154.
 Gilbert, P., Clarke, M., Hempel, S., Miles, J.N. and Irons, C., 2004. Criticizing and reassuring oneself: An exploration of forms, styles and reasons in female students. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(1), pp.31-50.
 Amaza, D.S., Sambo, N., Zirahei, J.V., Dalori, M.B., Japhet, H. and Toyin, H., 2012. Menstrual pattern among female medical students in University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.327-337.
 Alghamdi, A.K.H. and Hassan, N.A.S., 2016. The effectiveness of the Mawhiba program for the development of critical thinking skills among gifted female students at the secondary levels. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, pp.1-13.