Bankable permits for the control of environmental pollution
Intertemporal trading of emission permits (banking) is often identified as one of three promising market mechanisms for controlling pollution (along with averaging and trading). Surprisingly, the efficiency properties of permit banking systems have not been investigated. Using a simple optimal control model, this paper investigates firms’ incentives for banking or borrowing emission permits and compares the emission and output streams firms would choose with the socially optimal solution. We find that in many cases firms will suboptimally choose excessive damage and output levels in early periods and correspondingly too few in later periods if given the opportunity to freely move emissions between time periods. We propose a simple alternative trading scheme we term modified banking that counters this problem and should be no more difficult for an environmental authority to implement than a straigth banking system.
 Environmental pollution in Malaysia: trends and prospects
With the adoption of effective treatment systems, pollution from the Malaysian agrobased industries, particularly natural rubber and oil palm, has decreased in recent years. At present, domestic sewage and animal wastes are the major sources of organic pollution load in the aquatic environment. The widespread and often indiscriminate use of pesticides has also resulted in detrimental effects on aquatic resources. Furthermore, rapid industrial development and urbanisation during the past two decades have given rise to the increased quantity and diversity of toxic and hazardous wastes. The aim of maintaining the detrimental effects of rapid industrialisation on the environment to a minimum will necessitate the evolution of current sustainable management practices to include environmental auditing, the incorporation of waste minimisation strategies into manufacturing processes, as well as regular assessments of the effectiveness of mitigating measures.
 Environmental pollution and the global burden of disease
Exposures to environmental pollution remain a major source of health risk throughout the world, though risks are generally higher in developing countries, where poverty, lack of investment in modern technology and weak environmental legislation combine to cause high pollution levels. Associations between environmental pollution and health outcome are, however, complex and often poorly characterized. Levels of exposure, for example, are often uncertain or unknown as a result of the lack of detailed monitoring and inevitable variations within any population group. Exposures may occur via a range of pathways and exposure processes. Individual pollutants may be implicated in a wide range of health effects, whereas few diseases are directly attributable to single pollutants. Long latency times, the effects of cumulative exposures, and multiple exposures to different pollutants which might act synergistically all create difficulties in unravelling associations between environmental pollution and health. Nevertheless, in recent years, several attempts have been made to assess the global burden of disease as a result of environmental pollution, either in terms of mortality or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). About 8–9% of the total disease burden may be attributed to pollution, but considerably more in developing countries. Unsafe water, poor sanitation and poor hygiene are seen to be the major sources of exposure, along with indoor air pollution.
 Analysis and Seasonal Distribution of Some Heavy Metals in Sediment of Lagos Lagoon Using Environmental Pollution Indices
Some heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cr, As and Zn) analysis and their seasonal distribution between in the sediment samples of Lagos Lagoon were studied during the dry and wet seasons in November, 2012 to June, 2013 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Contamination Factor (Cf), Degree of Contamination (Cd) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were the pollution indices employed to ascertain whether the contamination is anthropogenic or natural. Six sampling stations (Iddo, Ijora, Five cowries’ creek, Apapa port, Tincan creek, Commodore channel) were identified due to some anthropogenic activities observed in each station. Pb concentrations in all stations were within the permissible limits of 40 mg/kg of USEPA and Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) of Nigeria except in stations 4 and 6 in wet season. Mn levels in all the analyzed sediments were also exceeded USEPA and DPR values of 46 mg/kg during the two seasons. Cr and Zn are within the permissible limits in all the stations during the wet and dry season hence, reflecting their natural background levels in the sediment. The concentration of As in all the analyzed sediments were exceeded the USEPA value of 9.8 mg/kg. Comparison between the results obtained from the sediment analyzed during dry and wet seasons for metal concentration indicates that all the contaminants are significant at P< 0.05 level during the dry and wet seasons except for Pb and Cr that are significant at P< 0.01 level while As and Mn are not significantly correlated between the two seasons.
 New Data on the Ceratophyllum demersum L. as an Environmental Pollution Bioindicator
Aims: To perform an experimental analyses of the chemical composition and anatomic structure of polluted higher aquatic plants with the aid of combined physical methods of characterization by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis to validate their use for environmental pollution bioindication.
Methodology: We used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis for the detection of anthropogenic pollution in nature and in the model experiments on the chemical composition and anatomic structure of bioindicator plants (hydrophytes) Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Results: A correlation between the changes existing in the IR spectrum of the plant samples and anthropogenic pollution of the plant inhabitation is established. Deformation and epidermis cell disruption were revealed in the samples from polluted sites and under the influence of salts of heavy metals (Hg2SO4, NiSO4) and ammonium salts ((NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3).
Conclusion: By the use of combined physical methods it was proved that higher aquatic plants have a capability to respond actively on the water chemical composition changes by the increase of absorption bands intensity related to contaminants.
 Kling, C. and Rubin, J., 1997. Bankable permits for the control of environmental pollution. Journal of Public Economics, 64(1), pp.101-115.
 Abdullah, A.R., 1995. Environmental pollution in Malaysia: trends and prospects. TRAC trends in analytical chemistry, 14(5), pp.191-198.
 Briggs, D., 2003. Environmental pollution and the global burden of disease. British medical bulletin, 68(1), pp.1-24.
 Abiodun, O.A. and Oyeleke, P.O., 2016. Analysis and seasonal distribution of some heavy metals in sediment of Lagos lagoon using environmental pollution indices. Physical Science International Journal, pp.1-11.
 Ilyashenko, N.V., Petrova, M.B., Pavlova, N.V., Kharitonova, E.A. and Kurbatova, L.A., 2014. New Data on the Ceratophyllum demersum L. as an Environmental Pollution Bioindicator. Annual Research & Review in Biology, pp.366-377.