Wireless sensor networks
Advances in commercial IC fabrication technology have made possible the integration of wireless transceivers, CMOS signal processing, and sensing in one integrated circuit package. Combination with actuation is also possible. This amounts to a low-cost means to link communications and computer networks to the physical world, and may have profound consequences in such diverse areas as security, process control, planetary exploration, and medical monitoring and diagnosis. We outline the system design issues for a distributed sensor network, in which each node has a limited energy supply and relatively low data rate link. The nodes must establish a synchronous multi-hop network, determine locations, and cooperate for such purposes as beamforming and passing messages to the outside world.
 Instrumenting the world with wireless sensor networks
Pervasive micro-sensing and actuation may revolutionize the way in which we understand and manage complex physical systems: from airplane wings to complex ecosystems. The capabilities for detailed physical monitoring and manipulation offer enormous opportunities for almost every scientific discipline, and it will alter the feasible granularity of engineering. We identify opportunities and challenges for distributed signal processing in networks of these sensing elements and investigate some of the architectural challenges posed by systems that are massively distributed, physically-coupled, wirelessly networked, and energy limited.
 Security in wireless sensor networks
They are susceptible to a variety of attacks, including node capture, physical tampering, and denial of service, while prompting a range of fundamental research challenges.
 Performance Analysis of ACO Based Routing Protocols- EMCBR, AntChain, IACR, ACO-EAMRA for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
This research paper is study of ACO based routing protocols proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks by various researchers. The protocols comprehensively compared via this research paper are: Ant Colony Based Energy Aware Multipath Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (ACO-EAMRA), Improvised Ant Colony Routing (IACR), Efficient Minimum Cost Bandwidth Constrained Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (EMCBR) and AntChain Protocol. Extensive study on simulations are made on different scenarios and simulation time on Random Way Point Mobility Model for all protocols. The results show that overall IACR is best among all the other protocols to the extent about 30-40% better in terms of Packet Delivery, Energy Efficiency and maintaining overall robustness and scalability of Wireless Sensor Networks.
 Oil Pipeline Leak Detection and Localisation Using Wireless Sensor Networks
This paper describes the development of a wireless sensor network that uses pressure variation to detect and locate leaks in a prototype oil pipeline. The HK1100C oil pressure sensor is used as a sensing unit to sense/monitor pressure variation inside the prototype oil pipeline and outputs the corresponding voltage variation to a microcontroller. The whole network comprises mainly of HK1100C oil pressure sensor, Arduino Uno board containing ATmega328P microcontroller, SIM800L GSM module, JHD162ALCD module, audio alarm buzzer, 9V supply. The ATmega328P microcontroller was programmed in C++ programming language. If deployed in Nigeria, the wireless sensor network will be able to monitor oil pipelines against leaks and therefore reduce environmental degradation and economic losses resulting from oil leakages.
 Pottie, G.J., 1998, June. Wireless sensor networks. In 1998 Information Theory Workshop (Cat. No. 98EX131) (pp. 139-140). IEEE.
 Estrin, D., Girod, L., Pottie, G. and Srivastava, M., 2001, May. Instrumenting the world with wireless sensor networks. In 2001 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing. Proceedings (Cat. No. 01CH37221) (Vol. 4, pp. 2033-2036). IEEE.
 They are susceptible to a variety of attacks, including node capture, physical tampering, and denial of service, while prompting a range of fundamental research challenges.
 Nayyar, A. and Singh, R., 2017. Performance analysis of ACO based routing protocols-EMCBR, AntChain, IACR, ACO-EAMRA for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science, pp.1-18.
 Okpare, A.O., Anyasi, F.I. and Ebegba, D., 2019. Oil pipeline leak detection and localisation using wireless sensor networks. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.1-9.