Breathing new life into immunotherapy: review of melanoma, lung and kidney cancer
Previously, clinical approaches to using the immune system against cancer focused on vaccines that intended to specifically initiate or amplify a host response against evolving tumours. Although vaccine approaches have had some clinical success, most cancer vaccines fail to induce objective tumour shrinkage in patients. More-recent approaches have centred on a series of molecules known as immune checkpoints—whose natural function is to restrain or dampen a potentially over-exuberant response. Blocking immune checkpoint molecules with monoclonal antibodies has emerged as a viable clinical strategy that mediates tumour shrinkage in several cancer types. In addition to being part of the current treatment armamentarium for metastatic melanoma, immune checkpoint blockade is currently undergoing phase III testing in several cancer types. 
Lung and kidney cancer mortality associated with arsenic in drinking water in Córdoba, Argentina
Studies in Taiwan have found dose-response relations between arsenic ingestion from drinking water and cancers of the skin, bladder, lung, kidney and liver. To investigate these associations in another population, we conducted a study in Córdoba, Argentina, which has a well-documented history of arsenic exposure from drinking water.
Mortality from lung, kidney, liver and skin cancers during the period 1986–1991 in Córdoba’s 26 counties was investigated, expanding the authors’ previous analysis of bladder cancer in the province. Counties were grouped a priori into low, medium and high arsenic exposure categories based on available data. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using all of Argentina as the reference population.
We found increasing trends for kidney and lung cancer mortality with arsenic exposure, with the following SMR, for men and women respectively: kidney cancer, 0.87, 1.33, 1.57 and 1.00, 1.36, 1.81; lung cancer, 0.92. 1.54, 1.77 and 1.24, 1.34, 2.16 (in all cases, P < 0.001 in trend test), similar to the previously reported bladder cancer results (0.80, 1.28, 2.14 for men, 1.22, 1.39, 1.81 for women). There was a small positive trend for liver cancer but mortality was increased in all three exposure groups. Skin cancer mortality was elevated for women only in the high exposure group, while men showed a puzzling increase in mortality in the low exposure group.
The results add to the evidence that arsenic ingestion increases the risk of lung and kidney cancers. In this study, the association between arsenic and mortality from liver and skin cancers was not clear. 
Toxicities of Targeted Therapy and Their Management in Kidney Cancer
The therapeutic scenario for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has been evolving rapidly, with sunitinib, sorafenib, bevacizumab, everolimus, pazopanib, and temsirolimus being successfully tested and approved in a short period of time. Oncologists must be familiar with the management of toxicity that these biologic agents cause, as such toxicity is different from that of conventional chemotherapeutic agents.
To describe toxic effects associated with targeted therapy of mRCC and their proper management on the basis of currently available evidence.
We conducted a systematic analysis of the literature on 15th October 2010 by performing a search of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) on PubMed using the words sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab, everolimus, pazopanib, or temsirolimus combined with the MeSH term kidney neoplasms. Consideration for inclusion was given to articles providing data concerning (1) incidence and grading and (2) management of targeted therapy–related toxic effects. A separate search was conducted on PubMed to retrieve meta-analyses using each drug name and the word meta-analysis.
Hypertension, fatigue, bone marrow toxicity, skin toxicity, and gastrointestinal side-effects are common with the six targeted agents. Everolimus and temsirolimus are associated with immunosuppression, metabolic alterations, and interstitial pneumonitis, while sunitinib is associated with hypothyroidism. Recommendations for treating these conditions usually follow those for the general population because of the lack of experimental data in this setting (eg, for management of sunitinib-induced hypertension).
The treating oncologist should try to manage side-effects associated with targeted therapy using supportive and pharmacologic interventions. Severe toxicity requires external specialist consultation and treatment suspension and/or dose reduction. Experimental data about the management of targeted therapy–related toxicity in mRCC is lacking and required in this setting. 
Histo-Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer in Cameroon: About 110 Cases
Objectives: To describe the epidemiological and histopathological aspects of kidney cancer in Cameroon.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study on malignant tumors of the kidney examined in the anatomical pathology laboratories of five regions (Center, Littoral, West, South-west and North-west), over a period of 12 years (2004-2015). The studied parameters were: frequency, age, sex, histological type.
Results: A total of 110 cases of kidney cancer were collected, representing 8.55% of malignant urogenital tumors. The mean age of patients was 28.72±24.79 years (extremes: 4 months – 76 years). Females are relatively more affected than males (56 cases, 50.91%), with female-to-male ratio of 1.04:1. A total of 58 (52.73%) cases of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 46 (41.82%) cases of nephroblastomas (NB) and 3 (2.73%) of soft tissue tumors were identified.
Conclusion: Kidney cancer is the third urogenital cancer in Cameroon characterized by a relative female predominance with renal cell carcinoma as the predominant histological type. 
Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury Patients with and Without Cancer: A Single Center Study
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. Incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients with cancer is increasing, but there have been few studies on AKI in patients with cancer. The purposes of this study were: 1. To evaluate and compare the characteristics and outcomes of cancer and non-cancer AKI patients; 2. To determine the impact of cancer diagnosis on hospital mortality of AKI patients; and 3. To compare outcome predictors between the two groups of AKI patients.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a South Korean tertiary care hospital. A total of 2211 consecutive patients (without cancer 61.5%; with cancer 38.5%) were included over a 140-month period. Predictors of all-cause death were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model.
Results: The main contributing factors of AKI were sepsis (31.1%) and ischemia (52.7%). AKI was multifactorial in 78% of patients with cancer and in 71% of patients without cancer. Hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with cancer (42.8%) than in patients without cancer (22.5%) (P = 0.014). In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer diagnosis were associated with hospital mortality. Cancer diagnosis was independently associated with mortality [odds ratio = 3.010 (95% confidence interval, 2.340-3.873), P = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that subjects with DM and cancer (n = 146) had lower survival rates than subjects with DM and without cancer (n = 687) (log rank test, P = 0.001).
Conclusion: The presence of DM and cancer were independently associated with mortality in AKI patients both with and without cancer. Studies are warranted to determine whether proactive measures may limit AKI and improve outcomes. 
 Drake, C.G., Lipson, E.J. and Brahmer, J.R., 2014. Breathing new life into immunotherapy: review of melanoma, lung and kidney cancer. Nature reviews Clinical oncology, 11(1), p.24.
 Hopenhayn-Rich, C., Biggs, M.L. and Smith, A.H., 1998. Lung and kidney cancer mortality associated with arsenic in drinking water in Cordoba, Argentina. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27(4), pp.561-569.
 Di Lorenzo, G., Porta, C., Bellmunt, J., Sternberg, C., Kirkali, Z., Staehler, M., Joniau, S., Montorsi, F. and Buonerba, C., 2011. Toxicities of targeted therapy and their management in kidney cancer. European urology, 59(4), pp.526-540.
 Paul Ndamba Engbang, J., Sala, B., Fonkwa, C., Ligan, Y., Djougmo Djimeli, B., Simo, G., Moune, A., Fewou, A., Louis Oyono Essame, J., Hasigov, A. and Ephiev, A. (2016) “Histo-Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer in Cameroon: About 110 Cases”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 5(1), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2017/30063.
 Lee, J., Kim, Y. N. and Shin, H. S. (2015) “Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury Patients with and Without Cancer: A Single Center Study”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 7(4), pp. 255-262. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15899.