Oral Phosphate Binders in Patients with Kidney Failure
Hyperphosphatemia, which is nearly universal in kidney failure, is accompanied by low serum levels of vitamin D and hypocalcemia. Without treatment, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs, which may result in painful fractures, brown tumors, and generalized osteopenia. This article reviews the rationale for treatment with oral phosphate binders, discusses evidence supporting the use of available agents, and suggests an approach for clinical practice. 
Mutation of BSND causes Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness and kidney failure
Antenatal Bartter syndrome (aBS) comprises a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive salt-losing nephropathies1. Identification of three genes that code for renal transporters and channels as responsible for aBS2,3,4,5,6,7 has resulted in new insights into renal salt handling, diuretic action and blood-pressure regulation8. A gene locus of a fourth variant of aBS called BSND, which in contrast to the other forms is associated with sensorineural deafness (SND) and renal failure, has been mapped to chromosome 1p9. 
Kidney-Failure Risk Projection for the Living Kidney-Donor Candidate
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of candidates to serve as living kidney donors relies on screening for individual risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To support an empirical approach to donor selection, we developed a tool that simultaneously incorporates multiple health characteristics to estimate a person’s probable long-term risk of ESRD if that person does not donate a kidney. 
Vitamin E Supplementation Improves Oxidant-antioxidant Balance in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Treated by Hemodialysis
Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidant-antioxidant balance in chronic renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis. Study Design: The study utilized a randomized experimental design. The experimental intervention consisted of vitamin E supplementation Place and Duration of Study: 40 patients on hemodialysis (M/W=22/18; 36±12 years) received nutritional councils based on the NKF K/DOQI (National Kidney FoundationKidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) guidelines. Patients were randomized into 2 groups:one was used as control and the second group was treated by vitamin E supplementation (100mg/day=146IU/d) during 30 days. Methodology: Pro-oxidant status was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and carbonyls analysis. Antioxidant defence was performed. 
Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Chronic Renal Failure Patients Pre – Dialysis Therapy in Hodiedah City, Yemen
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant problem in hemodialysis patients, which poses difficulty in the management of the patients in the renal dialysis unit.
Objective: This study aimed to detect and determine the prevalence of HCV in renal failure pre- dialysis patients (for the first time) in the renal dialysis center of Hodiedah city, Yemen.
 Tonelli, M., Pannu, N. and Manns, B., 2010. Oral phosphate binders in patients with kidney failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(14), pp.1312-1324.
 Birkenhäger, R., Otto, E., Schürmann, M.J., Vollmer, M., Ruf, E.M., Maier-Lutz, I., Beekmann, F., Fekete, A., Omran, H., Feldmann, D. and Milford, D.V., 2001. Mutation of BSND causes Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness and kidney failure. Nature genetics, 29(3), pp.310-314.
 Grams, M.E., Sang, Y., Levey, A.S., Matsushita, K., Ballew, S., Chang, A.R., Chow, E.K., Kasiske, B.L., Kovesdy, C.P., Nadkarni, G.N. and Shalev, V., 2016. Kidney-failure risk projection for the living kidney-donor candidate. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(5), pp.411-421.
 Tiali, A., Taleb-Belkadi, O., Tbahriti, H.F., Bouzidi-Bekada, N., Kaddous, A., Malika, B. and Mekki, K., 2014. Vitamin E Supplementation Improves Oxidant-antioxidant Balance in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Treated by Hemodialysis. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.4169-4177.
 Al Awfi, M.S., Al-Kamarany, M.A., Mohsen, R., Al Hilali, M., Al Khader, W., Al Jafari, S., Galeb, M., Al Amodi, H. and Moad, B., 2017. Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Chronic Renal Failure Patients Pre–Dialysis Therapy in Hodiedah City, Yemen. Microbiology Research Journal International, pp.1-6.