Catalytic Leadership: Reconsidering the Nature of Extension’s Leadership Role
Extension’s role in leading change in communities must shift from traditional notions of leadership to one of catalytic leadership. The expertise, programming-driven leadership model of Extension’s past must be replaced with one of activating and convening stakeholders and facilitating problem-solving processes that address public issues collaboratively. This article introduces the basic skills of catalytic leadership, offers two illustrative examples from Extension in Iowa, and connects this leadership model with Public Issues Education. It concludes with some suggestions for how Extension units can move toward the catalytic model. 
Police Leadership in America — Crisis and Opportunity
Papers address both the constraints imposed on police chiefs by mayors and city managers and the police chief’s role in civic policymaking, crises and opportunities presented by community pressures on police chiefs (such as incentives and disincentives for greater police chief-community interaction), and the police chiefs’ relations with the media. Additional papers examine the question of who should discipline the police, the dynamics of the police use of force, structures for reviewing police conduct, and principles for developing complaint procedures. Papers dealing with the interaction of police and prosecutors review institutional dissonance, personal value differences, and police civil liability. Subsequent papers address the history and effectiveness of police unions, the interaction of the police chief with unions, police crime control methods, the use of research in police policymaking, and police professionalism (police-private police cooperation and the leadership role of the chief in managing major policing changes). Chapter notes are provided along with a 580-item reference list and name and subject indexes. For individual papers, see NCJ 99238-66.
Developmental and genetic determinants of leadership role occupancy among women
The genetic and developmental influences on leadership role occupancy were investigated using a sample of 178 fraternal and 214 identical female twins. Two general developmental factors were identified, one involving formal work experiences and the other a family experiences factor hypothesized to influence whether women move into positions of leadership in organizations. Results indicated that 32% of the variance in leadership role occupancy was associated with heritability. The 2 developmental factors also showed significant correlations with leadership role occupancy. However, after genetic factors were partialed out, only the work experience factor was significantly related to leadership role occupancy. Results are discussed in terms of prior life events and experiences that may trigger leadership development and the limitations of this study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) 
Understanding Students’ Leadership Role and Challenges in Secondary Schools in Tanzania
Student leadership refers to education principles and practices that give young people the opportunities and support to find their voices, to participate in decision-making, understand their rights, and responsibilities as active citizens. The study used a descriptive survey to understand the role and challenges of students’ leadership in secondary schools in Tanzania. There were a total of 94 participants, amongst these, 70 students’ leaders, 6 discipline heads and 18 ordinary teachers were obtained from 6 public and private schools in Arusha Region using purposive and stratified sampling technique. Students and teachers filled out questionnaires and discipline heads were involved in the interviews. The results show that Head boys, Head girls and Secretary General were the top positions of the students’ government. Results also reveal that good discipline, confidence and academic competence were the main qualities that teachers used to select a student to be a leader. The results therefore show that missing lessons while attending student matters, failure to complete class assignments on time, lack of enough time to engage in private studies, fear to report on teachers who miss classes/come to class late and lack of leadership training were the challenges that student leaders faced as while performing their duties. Conversely, no significant difference was found in students’ leadership role and academic performance in the classroom. The study finally concludes that training for student leaders is vital so as to allow them to perform their duties diligently, since the future leaders of our society are the current leaders in schools.
Effect of Transformational Leadership on Employee Organizational Commitment: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence
This study examines the relevance of different approaches related to non-pecuniary factors by distinguishing positive from negative work attitudes (e.g., effort and shirking). Using survey data, we quantify the relative importance of several human resource management practices. Results show that the social esteem approach, including pride and shame, is more prevalent than the social preference approach, including reciprocity and fairness, with respect to effort. However, the latter approach is as important as the former approach with respect to shirking. These results are robust, irrespective of gender. Distinguishing the context of work incentives, either effort or shirking, is crucially important when discussing the effects of non-pecuniary factors. 
 Morse, R.S., Brown, P.W. and Warning, J.E., 2006. Catalytic leadership: Reconsidering the nature of extension’s leadership role. Journal of extension, 44(2), pp.1-6.
 Geller, W.A. ed., 1985. Police leadership in America: Crisis and opportunity. New York.: American Bar Foundation.
 Arvey, R.D., Zhang, Z., Avolio, B.J. and Krueger, R.F., 2007. Developmental and genetic determinants of leadership role occupancy among women. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), p.693.
 Kambuga, Y. and Omollo, A. (2017) “Understanding Students’ Leadership Role and Challenges in Secondary Schools in Tanzania”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 2(3), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32037.
 Saeed, I., Khan, M., Ullah, A., Ibrahim, S., Irshad, P., Bashir, S. and Ali, A. (2015) “Effect of Transformational Leadership on Employee Organizational Commitment: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence”, Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 6(4), pp. 276-283. doi: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/15273.