Adaptation to climate change in the developing world
The world’s climate is changing and will continue to change into the coming century at rates projected to be unprecedented in recent human history. The risks associated with these changes are real but highly uncertain. Societal vulnerability to the risks associated with climate change may exacerbate ongoing social and economic challenges, particularly for those parts of societies dependent on resources that are sensitive to changes in climate. Risks are apparent in agriculture, fisheries and many other components that constitute the livelihood of rural populations in developing countries. In this paper we explore the nature of risk and vulnerability in the context of climate change and review the evidence on present-day adaptation in developing countries and on coordinated international action on future adaptation. 
Successful adaptation to climate change across scales
Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. 
Social Capital, Collective Action, and Adaptation to Climate Change
The effects of observed and future changes in climate are spatially and socially differentiated. The impacts of future changes will be felt particularly by resource-dependent communities through a multitude of primary and secondary effects cascading through natural and social systems. 
Adaptation to Climate Change by Farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria
The increasing trend of climate change has led to growing concern on its impact on different sectors of the economy particularly on agriculture. Coping with the vulnerability and negative effects of climate change on agriculture requires mitigation at the policy level and adaptation at the farm level. However, the ability of farmers to adopt the various adaptation strategies may be constrained by a number of factors. Therefore, this study identified the climate adaptation strategies adopted by farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria and subsequently examined the determinants of farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change. 
Smallholder Farm Households’ Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate-induced Food Insecurity
Smallholder farm households seem to have no alternative in addressing climate-induced food insecurity, but to adapt their livelihood systems to the changing climate condition. The study aimed to explore the link between climate-induced rice-insufficiency and vulnerability level of smallholder farm households, which determined their household-level adaptation responses, in Sumedang District, West Java Province, Indonesia. The Climate Change Impact, Adaptation, and Vulnerability (CCIAV) approach, developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), was applied. The result suggested that under current climate condition, most smallholder farm households in the study area were already insufficient in their rice availability, as indicated by their low rice sufficiency level (HRSL). 
 Adger, W.N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D. and Hulme, M., 2003. Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Progress in development studies, 3(3), pp.179-195.
 Adger, W.N., Arnell, N.W. and Tompkins, E.L., 2005. Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global environmental change, 15(2), pp.77-86.
 Adger, W.N., 2010. Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. In Der klimawandel (pp. 327-345). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
 Okpe, B. and Aye, G. (2014) “Adaptation to Climate Change by Farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria”, Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 2(1), pp. 46-57. doi: 10.9734/JAERI/2015/12169.
 Candradijaya, A., Kusmana, C., Syaukat, Y., Syaufina, L. and Faqih, A. (2014) “Smallholder Farm Households’ Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate-induced Food Insecurity”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4(36), pp. 4974-4991. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/12848.