Binding of blood proteins to carbon nanotubes reduces cytotoxicity
With the potential wide uses of nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications, and the growing concerns of nanotoxicity of these engineered nanoparticles, the importance of nanoparticle–protein interactions cannot be stressed enough. In this study, we use both experimental and theoretical approaches, including atomic force microscope images, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD, SDS-PAGE, and molecular dynamics simulations, to investigate the interactions of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with human serum proteins, and find a competitive binding of these proteins with different adsorption capacity and packing modes. The π-π stacking interactions between SWCNTs and aromatic residues (Trp, Phe, Tyr) are found to play a critical role in determining their adsorption capacity. Additional cellular cytotoxicity assays, with human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, reveal that the competitive bindings of blood proteins on the SWCNT surface can greatly alter their cellular interaction pathways and result in much reduced cytotoxicity for these protein-coated SWCNTs, according to their respective adsorption capacity. These findings have shed light toward the design of safe carbon nanotube nanomaterials by comprehensive preconsideration of their interactions with human serum proteins.
 Peripheral Blood Proteins Predict Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Plasma samples were available for 241 patients with IPF (140 derivation and 101 validation). In the derivation cohort, concentrations of 92 proteins were analyzed using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, MMP-1, and surfactant protein D were assessed by ELISA. In the validation cohort concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, IL-8, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were assessed by bead-based multiplex assay, and S100A12 and MMP-7 by ELISA. Associations of biomarkers with mortality, transplant-free survival, and disease progression were tested in the derivation and validation cohorts using nonparametric methods of survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model, and an integrated risk prediction score was derived and tested.
 Interaction of Gold Nanoparticles with Common Human Blood Proteins
In order to better understand the physical basis of the biological activity of nanoparticles (NPs) in nanomedicine applications and under conditions of environmental exposure, we performed an array of photophysical measurements to quantify the interaction of model gold NPs having a wide range of NP diameters with common blood proteins. In particular, absorbance, fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy measurements were performed on surface-functionalized water-soluble gold NPs having a diameter range from 5 to 100 nm in the presence of common human blood proteins: albumin, fibrinogen, γ-globulin, histone, and insulin.
 Nutritive and Biological Value of Liver and Blood of Various Slaughtered Animals
Offal, such as liver, heart, tongue, kidneys, blood, skin, bone, etc., represents an essential source of protein, vitamin and mineral elements. The present study is an attempt at determining the amino acid composition of horse and beef liver and blood. In general, horse liver was to be a good source of protein (25.06%) compared with beef liver (17.4%). The moisture (74.9%) and fat (3.8) contents were significantly higher (p<0.05) in beef liver, while the ash content of the horse liver was 1.42% compared to 1.30% in beef liver. Total essential amino acid content was higher in beef liver (40.63%) than in horse liver (37.31%).
 Use of Staphylococcal Protein-A and Streptococcal Protein-G for Detection of Red Blood Cells (RBC) Antibodies and Comparison with Other Techniques
Background: Detection of red blood cells antibodies is important for the diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hemolytic disease of newborn, pre-transfusion testing and other problems. The aim of this study was to use Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and Streptococcal protein G (SpG) as reagents in immunological tests for detecting red blood cells (RBC) antibodies and to compare the method with other techniques.
Study Design & Methods: Sera from 60 patients, comprising forty-four anti-D positive sera from pregnant women and 16 from healthy controls were, used for the study. The anti-globulin gel test and the standard Coombs’ test were used to determine RBC antibodies in these sera and the result were compared with that of protein A and protein G tests.
Results: With various degree of agglutination all 4 techniques detected the presence of RBC antibodies (anti-D) in the sera from 44 pregnant women, and tested negative for the remaining 16 sera (from healthy controls). The sensitivity and the specificity of the 4 techniques was 100%.
Conclusions: This preliminary study demonstrates that both SpA and SpG tests can be used for the detection of RBC antibodies and therefore requires more study and testing before they can become useful standard tests in transfusion medicine.
 Ge, C., Du, J., Zhao, L., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Li, D., Yang, Y., Zhou, R., Zhao, Y., Chai, Z. and Chen, C., 2011. Binding of blood proteins to carbon nanotubes reduces cytotoxicity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(41), pp.16968-16973.
 Richards, T.J., Kaminski, N., Baribaud, F., Flavin, S., Brodmerkel, C., Horowitz, D., Li, K., Choi, J., Vuga, L.J., Lindell, K.O. and Klesen, M., 2012. Peripheral blood proteins predict mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 185(1), pp.67-76.
 Lacerda, S.H.D.P., Park, J.J., Meuse, C., Pristinski, D., Becker, M.L., Karim, A. and Douglas, J.F., 2010. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with common human blood proteins. ACS nano, 4(1), pp.365-379.
 Kakimov, A., Suychinov, A., Tsoy, A., Mustambayev, N., Ibragimov, N., Kuderinova, N., Mirasheva, G. and Yessimbekov, Z., 2018. Nutritive and biological value of liver and blood of various slaughtered animals. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp.1-5.
 Vaillant, A.A.J., Akpaka, P.E., McFarlane-Anderson, N. and Smikle, M.P., 2013. Use of Staphylococcal Protein-A and Streptococcal Protein-G for Detection of Red Blood Cells (RBC) Antibodies and Comparison with Other Techniques. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1671-1677.