Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy
Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and therapy. Advances in protein engineering and materials science have contributed to novel nanoscale targeting approaches that may bring new hope to cancer patients. Several therapeutic nanocarriers have been approved for clinical use. However, to date, there are only a few clinically approved nanocarriers that incorporate molecules to selectively bind and target cancer cells. This review examines some of the approved formulations and discusses the challenges in translating basic research to the clinic. We detail the arsenal of nanocarriers and molecules available for selective tumour targeting, and emphasize the challenges in cancer treatment. 
Apoptosis. Its significance in cancer and cancer Therapy
Apoptosis is a distinct mode of cell death that is responsible for deletion of cells in normal tissues; it also occurs in specific pathologic contexts. Morphologically, it involves rapid condensation and budding of the cell, with the formation of membrane‐enclosed apoptotic bodies containing well‐preserved organelles, which are phagocytosed and digested by nearby resident cells. There is no associated inflammation. A characteristic biochemical feature of the process is double‐strand cleavage of nuclear DNA at the linker regions between nucleosomes leading to the production of oligonucleosomal fragments. In many, although not all of the circumstances in which apoptosis occurs, it is suppressed by inhibitors of messenger RNA and protein synthesis. Apoptosis occurs spontaneously in malignant tumors, often markedly retarding their growth, and it is increased in tumors responding to irradiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, heating and hormone ablation. However, much of the current interest in the process stems from the discovery that it can be regulated by certain proto‐oncogenes and the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Thus, c‐myc expression has been shown to be involved in the initiation of apoptosis in some situations, and bcl‐2 has emerged as a new type of proto‐oncogene that inhibits apoptosis, rather than stimulating mitosis. In p53‐negative tumor‐derived cell lines transfected with wild‐type p53, induction of the gene has, in rare cases, been found to cause extensive apoptosis, instead of growth arrest. Finally, the demonstration that antibodies against a cell‐surface protein designated APO‐1 or Fas can enhance apoptosis in some human lymphoid cell lines may have therapeutic implications. 
Cytokines in cancer pathogenesis and cancer therapy
The mixture of cytokines that is produced in the tumour microenvironment has an important role in cancer pathogenesis. Cytokines that are released in response to infection, inflammation and immunity can function to inhibit tumour development and progression. Alternatively, cancer cells can respond to host-derived cytokines that promote growth, attenuate apoptosis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. A more detailed understanding of cytokine–tumour-cell interactions provides new opportunities for improving cancer immunotherapy. 
Cancer Therapy by Nutritional Restrictions: Current Knowledge and Future Guidelines
Cancer therapy has been a major scientific and medical focus for decades, treatment of which has proven to be a challenging task, especially in the light of its escalating incidence all over the globe. The material and moral costs of understanding the nature of the disease and finding successful ways of treatment have been extremely high. One major experimental addition to the methods of dealing with the various types of cancer has been the use of starvation protocols that may halt or delay the progression of malignant cells. In this review, a comprehensive and a pioneering account of the literature on starvation therapy is being demonstrated with an emphasis on the experimental and clinical evidence that exist, in addition to the molecular mechanisms and cellular alterations that accompany the starvation. The major objectives were to open ways for further research into understanding the topic and developing suitable and effective methods based on nutritional manipulations, for combating malignancies. The starvation includes precursors of growth such as energy precursors and others such as amino acids, nucleic acids, in addition to environmental manipulations such as abnormal oxygenation. Additional emphasis has highlighted the synergistic effects of combining conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy with various modes of the artificial starvation. Methods of manipulating nutritional precursors have also been compiled. Additionally, negative effects of starvation were also briefly explained in an attempt to comprehend future guidelines for antagonizing such negative effects. 
Novel Therapy for Oral Cancer – Gene Therapy an Update
Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives and had great potential as a novel therapeutic modality. Progress in molecular biology, especially molecular medicine is now changing the basics of genetic disease. This technology takes advantage of our understanding of cancer at the molecular level. It has been exploited to develop new strategies for killing cells selectively or arresting their growth. This is new technique, being developed which offers incredible pledge for the upcoming therapeutic modality in oral cancer treatment. The aim of this paper is to review delivery routes, vector design, therapeutic applications and possible obstacles faced by gene therapist. 
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