Trends in Food Science & Technology
Ultrasound has attracted considerable interest in food science and technology due to its promising effects in food processing and preservation. As one of the advanced food technologies it can be applied to develop gentle but targeted processes to improve the quality and safety of processed foods and offers the potential for improving existing processes as well as for developing new process options. Some applications like cutting or sieving have already found their place as state of the art technologies. Others are currently considered as possible candidates for industrial application. In this review selected and potential applications of ultrasound mainly in the field of food preservation and product modification are discussed.
 Food Research International
Microwave heating has vast applications in the field of food processing such as cooking, drying, pasteurization and preservation of food materials. In this article, various applications of microwave food processing such as microwave cooking, microwave pasteurization and microwave assisted drying were extensively reviewed. The advantages and the factors affecting the microwave cooking of food materials have been reviewed. Microwave pasteurization of fresh juices, milk and various food products has been elaborately discussed. Microwave pasteurization has the ability to achieve destruction of microorganisms at temperatures lesser than that of conventional pasteurization due to significant enhancement or magnification of thermal effects. Applications of microwave drying include microwave assisted hot air drying, microwave vacuum drying and microwave freeze drying. Microwave drying combined with other conventional methods of drying enhances the drying characteristics of the sole effect of microwave drying.
 A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing
The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food‐processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food‐borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolongation of shelf‐life, improved digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients, improved palatability, taste, texture and flavour and enhanced functional properties, including augmented antioxidants and other defense reactivity or increased antimicrobial effectiveness. Thermal processing can bring some unintentional undesired consequences, such as losses of certain nutrients, formation of toxic compounds (acrylamide, furan or acrolein), or of compounds with negative effects on flavour perception, texture or colour. Heat treatment of foods needs to be optimized in order to promote beneficial effects and to counteract, to the best possible, undesired effects. This may be achieved more effectively/sustainably by consistent fine‐tuning of technological processes rather than within ordinary household cooking conditions. The most important identified points for further study are information on processed foods to be considered in epidemiological work, databases should be built to estimate the intake of compounds from processed foods, translation of in‐vitro results to in‐vivo relevance for human health should be worked on, thermal and non‐thermal processes should be optimized by application of kinetic principles.
 Waste to Wealth- Value Recovery from Agro-food Processing Wastes Using Biotechnology: A Review
From creation, man was charged to ‘increase, multiply, and subdue the earth’. Thus, man has continually sought to improve the quality of life by transforming nature to provide more food, and better living conditions for long life. Agriculture and technology are part of the tools used to accomplish this transformation and to achieve many of man’s goals. Through mechanization and other tools of modern technology man cultivates crops and rears animals for his food needs, processes same through industrial activities for value addition, and carries out other sundry activities- all in a bid to dominate his environment. Major fallout of all these is the generation of wastes, with their attendant implications for the environment generally. Generation of wastes demands that measures must be taken to manage them if the unpleasant consequences of their accumulation (and these are legions) must be averted. Hence, various waste management options have been adopted over time, most of which had tended to see waste as useless entity that must be disposed off wholesomely.
 Effect of Food Processing on Reduction of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables
Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. In this study, the effects of household processing treatments such as washing, peeling, juicing, freezing, cooking and frying were evaluated for their removal efficiency of pesticide residues from orange, strawberry and sweet pepper. Residues were indicated by using gas chromatography mass spectrum (GCMSD). In all three crops for real market samples were detected pesticide residues from 0.004 – 1.573 ppm., and the most pesticide residues was higher than MRL in orange was (lindane, P,P-DDD and fenvalerate), in strawberry was (aldrin, tetradifon, P,P-DDE, pirimiphos methyl and dimethoate) and in sweet pepper was (endosulfan II). Reduction of residue levels was indicated by processing treatments with an average response ratio ranging from 19% to 100%. Recommendation are provided for the conduct of storage or processing studies on pesticide residues in food so that data obtained is relevant, comparable and may be extrapolated to other situations.
 Knorr, D., Zenker, M., Heinz, V. and Lee, D.U., 2004. Applications and potential of ultrasonics in food processing. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(5), pp.261-266.
 Chandrasekaran, S., Ramanathan, S. and Basak, T., 2013. Microwave food processing—A review. Food Research International, 52(1), pp.243-261.
 van Boekel, M., Fogliano, V., Pellegrini, N., Stanton, C., Scholz, G., Lalljie, S., Somoza, V., Knorr, D., Jasti, P.R. and Eisenbrand, G., 2010. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing. Molecular nutrition & food research, 54(9), pp.1215-1247.
 Ezejiofor, T.I.N., Enebaku, U.E. and Ogueke, C., 2014. Waste to wealth-value recovery from agro-food processing wastes using biotechnology: a review. Biotechnology Journal International, pp.418-481.
 EL-Saeid, M.H. and Selim, M.T., 2016. Effect of food processing on reduction of pesticide residues in vegetables. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, pp.1-6.