Assessing climatic risk to sorghum production in water-limited subtropical environments I. Development and testing of a simulation model
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) is one of the major summer crops grown in the subtropics. The high rainfall variability and limited planting opportunities in these regions make crop production risky. A robust crop simulation model can assist farmer decision-making via simulation analyses to quantify production risks. Accordingly, we developed a simple, yet mechanistic crop simulation model for sorghum for use in assessing climatic risk to production in water-limited environments. The model simulates grain yield, biomass accumulation, crop leaf area, phenology and soil water balance. The model uses a daily time-step and readily available weather and soil information and assumes no nutrient limitation. The model was tested on numerous data (n=38) from experiments spanning a broad range of environments in the semi-arid tropics and subtropics. Potential limitations in the model were identified and examined in a novel testing procedure by using combinations of predicted and observed data in various modules of the model. The model performed satisfactorily, accounting for 94% and 64% of the variation in total biomass and grain yield, respectively. The difference in outcome for biomass and yield was caused by limitations in predicting harvest index. The concepts involved, and the limitations encountered, developing a crop model to be simple but consistent with the biophysical rigour required for application to such a diverse range of environments, are discussed. 
Sorghum production and utilization.
This book is in 5 sections dealing respectively with the sorghum plant and grain, production of sorghum, sorghum in other lands, utilization of the plant and utilization of the grain. One-third of the book is devoted to the utilization of the grain. The following chapters are noted:
- MARTIN, J. H. History and classification of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench), pp. 1-27, bibl. 49. The origin of sorghum, distinguishing plant characters, the groups of sorghum and their classification are discussed.
- FREEMAN, J. E. Development and structure of the sorghum plant and its fruit, pp. 28-72, bibl. 42. In this detailed chapter the morphology and anatomy of the culm, leaf, panicle and root system and the structure of the mature caryopsis are described. There is then an account of reproduction, development of the caryopsis and of the seedling.
- QUINBY, J. R. ; SCHERTZ, K. F. Sorghum genetics, breeding, and hybrid seed production, pp. 73-117, bibl. 124.
- WALL, J. S. ; BLESSIN, C. W. Composition of sorghum plant and grain, pp. 118-66, bibl. 136. After an introductory section on the proximate analysis of forage and grain, and the effect of agronomic factors on it, the characteristics of the constituent carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, pigments, minerals, enzymes, vitamins, organic acids and growth substances, are described.
- KRAMER, N. W. ; Ross, W. M. Cultivation of grain sorghum in the United States, pp. 167-99, bibl. 36. The adaptation of sorghum, distribution in the USA and cropping practices are briefly described before the main part of the chapter which deals with all aspects of cultivation.
- EDMUNDS, L. K. ; FUTRELL, M. C. ; FREDERIK-SEN, R. A. Sorghum diseases, pp. 200-34, bibl. 108. The diseases are divided according to their site of attack under the headings: seed and seedling, foliage, inflorescence, root and stem. Parasitic plants are also included. The symptoms and control of each disease are described.
- YOUNG, W. R. Sorghum insects, pp. 235-87, bibl. 192. Insect pests of sorghum are grouped according to plant growth stage and parts of the plant injured. Control measures are given for each.
- DOGGETT, H. ; CURTIS, D. L. ; LAUBSCHER, F. X. ; WEBSTER, O. J. Sorghum in Africa, pp. 288-327, bibl. 90. The varieties, cultivation and use of sorghum in E., W. and S. Africa are described.
- RACHIE, K. O. Sorghum in Asia, pp. 328-81, bibl. 65. The importance of sorghum in Asia, the indigenous strains present there, and sorghum cultivation and progress in its improvement are discussed.
- OWEN, F. G. ; MOLINE, W. J. Sorghum for forage, pp. 382-415, bibl. 114.
- COLEMAN, O. H. Syrup and sugar from sweet sorghum, pp. 416-40, bibl. 30.
- WEIBEL, D. E., Broomcorn, pp. 441-68, bibl. 32. The origin, distribution, morphology, breeding, cultivation, pests and diseases and uses of this form of sorghum are described.
- SORENSON, J. W. ; PERSON, N. K. Drying, storing, and handling sorghum grain, pp. 469-506, bibl. 30. There are further chapters on sorghum grain in animal nutrition, dry- and wet-milling and products of sorghum, and on economics and the future of the crop. There is a subject index.-M.R.H. 
Managing Irrigated Winter Wheat Residues for Water Storage and Subsequent Dryland Grain Sorghum Production
Better cropping and residue management systems are needed to improve precipitation‐use efficiency, minimize ground water depletion by irrigation, reduce pumping costs, and conserve energy. An irrigated winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)‐dryland grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] cropping system was evaluated from 1972 to 1978 for water storage between wheat harvest and sorghum planting time and for subsequent grain sorghum growth and yields. No‐tillage, sweep, and disk methods were used during the 11‐month period between crops for wheat residue management and weed control. Precipitation stored as soil water during the 11 months of fallow averaged 35, 23, and 15%; available soil water contents to the 1.8‐m depth at sorghum planting averaged 21.7, 17.0, and 15.2 cm; sorghum grain yields averaged 3,140, 2,500, and 1,930 kg/ha; and water‐use efficiencies (WUE) for sorghum grain averaged 89, 77, and 66 kg/ha‐cm for the respective treatments. Sorghum forage yields were slightly higher than grain yields and, therefore, WUE for forage production were higher than for grain. The WUE for forage, however, decreased in the same order as for grain. Based on March 1978 production costs and grain prices, net returns (excluding land, taxes, and interest costs) for sorghum production were four and two times greater with no‐tillage and sweep tillage, respectively, than with disk tillage, the most widely used tillage method after irrigated wheat in the Southern Great Plains. 
Socioeconomic Factors and Soil Fertility Management Practices Affecting Sorghum Production in Western Kenya: A Case Study of Busia County
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), though ranked as the third most important staple food crop in Kenya, farmers still experience periodic crop failure and this is a threat to food and income security. This paper attempts to find the underlying factors responsible for low production and establish farmers’ perceptions on soil fertility management. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Busia County, to relate socioeconomic factors and soil fertility management aspects affecting sorghum yields. Structured interviews and observations were used for data collection, considering the variables: demographic factors, income, farmers’ perception on soil fertility replenishing options, access to agricultural advisory services and yields of sorghum. Results indicate that women are predominant (57.3%) sorghum producing farmers in the County. Literacy level reveals majority of the farmers (49.3%) have primary education as optimum suggesting sorghum production to be through hands-on experience. Individual land ownership was the norm with most farms being 1.5 to 2.0 hectares. Income among respondents is below USD 1.25 per day. Sorghum is ranked very important (56.7%) and is a resource against food shortage. Many farmers (41.3.0%) use traditional seed from previous harvests with 24.0% purchasing seed from agro-dealers or being provided by non-Governmental organizations/projects. Intercropping is associated with food security, improved yields and land inadequacy and not to soil fertility restoration. Inadequate knowledge on the role of legumes and crop residue recycling in soil fertility improvement exists and 38.7% of farmers have access to agricultural information. Gender, social norms, literacy, fertilizer use, accessibility to advisory services and farmers’ perception on soil fertility management options are concluded to impact on sorghum production in Busia County. The existing database on the alternative researched options to restore soil fertility and increase crop yields could be channeled through demonstration plots to farmers in a participatory manner in order to facilitate adoption. 
Nutritional Quality of Cookies Produced From Mixtures of Fermented Pigeon Pea, Germinated Sorghum and Cocoyam Flours
Due to the high foreign exchange spent on the importation of wheat and the need to combat issues of malnutrition in developing countries, cookies were produced from flour blends of fermented pigeon pea (FPF), germinated sorghum (GSF) and cocoyam (CF). Proximate composition of the cookies revealed that cookies made with 100%FPF had the highest protein content of 16.13% while cookies made with 100%CF had the least protein value of 6.40%. The antinutritional factors investigated in the cookies were low and within allowable limits. The nutritional quality evaluated by animal feeding experiments revealed that biological values (BV) of cookies ranged from 78.16% (for 100%CF) to 96.57% (for 33.3%FPF:33.3%GSF:33.3%CF); net protein utilization (NPU) values ranged from 70.08% (for 100%CF) to 92.98% (for 33.3%FPF:33.3%GSF:33.3%CF) while true digestibility (TD) ranged from 89.53%(for 100%CF) to 97.88% (for 66.6%FPF:16.7%GSF:16.7%CF). The results obtained suggest that cookies of good nutritional value can be produced from these locally available crops. 
 Hammer, G.L. and Muchow, R.C., 1994. Assessing climatic risk to sorghum production in water-limited subtropical environments I. Development and testing of a simulation model. Field Crops Research, 36(3), pp.221-234.
 Wall, J.S. and Ross, W.M., 1970. Sorghum production and utilization. Sorghum production and utilization.
 Unger, P.W. and Wiese, A.F., 1979. Managing irrigated winter wheat residues for water storage and subsequent dryland grain sorghum production. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 43(3), pp.582-588.
 Kebeney, S., Msanya, B., Semoka, J., Ngetich, W. and Kipkoech, A. (2014) “Socioeconomic Factors and Soil Fertility Management Practices Affecting Sorghum Production in Western Kenya: A Case Study of Busia County”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 5(1), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/12107.
 Okpala, L. C. and Ekwe, O. O. (2013) “Nutritional Quality of Cookies Produced From Mixtures of Fermented Pigeon Pea, Germinated Sorghum and Cocoyam Flours”, European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 3(1), pp. 38-49. Available at: http://www.journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/27024 (Accessed: 4February2021).